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Reminder: You can change your grade to Credit/No Credit

Hi Class, 

Just a reminder that due to our current learning conditions, any student can change their letter grade (A, B, C…etc.) to a Credit/No Credit grade (CR/NC) for up to 20 business days after the final grade submission deadline.

Once selected, the CR/NC option cannot be reversed; and be it further if a student chooses to exercise this option, a passing letter grade (A, B, C, or D) will convert to ‘CR’ with credit for the class being awarded, while a failing grade (F) will convert to ‘NC’, with no credit awarded. Credit/No Credit grades will not impact the student’s GPA; courses taken for a letter grade will continue to be included in the semester and general GPA, while courses taken for a Credit/Non-credit grade will be excluded.

Please see the complete guidelines from CUNY here.

Let me know if you are interested in this, need help understanding the full guidelines, or want to discuss this! 

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Lecture and Notes on Postmodernism

  • Postmodernism is an “intellectual stance” of the mid to late 20th century
  • It is a mode of thinking characterized by a general skepticism towards truth, knowledge, science and morality; it is anti-enlightenment
  • It is highly suspicious of the “grand narratives” of history and the possibility of any one system (communism, capitalism, fascism) ameliorating the human condition
  • Likewise, it is suspicious of literary forms that claim to portray reality or truth; this is impossible according to the position of postmodernists
  • According to postmodernists, there is no objective or stable knowledge, reality or truth and aesthetics and beauty standards are also arbitrary and subjective
  • Our ideas of knowledge, reality, beauty, morality, science are all socially conditioned and depend on our relative position in society (race, social status, gender, political orientation etc.)
  • Postmodernists interested in reading and critiquing literature through lenses such as feminism, postcolonialism, and race and gender studies to point out our socially-conditioned gazes and their failings (i.e. how a western person might describe African or Asian cultures, or how a man writes a woman, and perhaps ultimately fails)
  • Postmodernists see books as products of particular political, historical and cultural norms or discourses and are concerned with the power struggles between those in higher and lower social positions based on wealth, gender, race, ethnicity etc. 

Postmodernists find those positions to be irreconcilable and therefore in conflict with each other. The conflict plays out in the writer’s stance towards their subject matter.

Another great lecture here:


Characteristics of postmodern novels/writing: 

    • A breakdown in genre/style/narration: the work comments on its own writing, plays with genre and/or features an unreliable narrator
    • The work shows the failure of art to accurately represent reality 
    • The work is more interested in form (style) than content (plot) i.e. it features a detective, but there is no mystery to be solved, and it doesn’t matter anyways
    • The work plays with the idea of the “novel” but abandons plot, characterization, believability and genre; it is wholly ironic or metafictional; it operates as a puzzle that cannot be easily solved but must be up to interpretation by the reader

The work does not seek to “improve” on the realism of modernism, it completely abandons the idea of improving upon artforms, it doesn’t believe in progress but rather critiques the idea that progress or improvement is possible or desirable.

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Creative Prompt #2: Proustian memory

Marcel Proust

Using Proust’s experience of “involuntary memory” while eating the madeleine cookie and drinking tea, write about a memory brought on by one of the five senses (touch, taste, smell, sight, hearing). You could use a real event from your life, or make up a memory provoked by a sensory experience.

An example: shuffling through Spotify, a song comes on that I used to listen to every morning when I was getting ready for school. All of sudden I’m transported back to my teenage room, the smell of coffee from the kitchen, freshly washed hair, maybe the perfume I wore back then…I can see the whole “scene” again and I’m back in my family’s home with the fears and joys I had at that age, with its creaky floorboards and clanging pipes. It’s winter and I need to catch the bus by eight. Any minute my mom will yell through the door, like she does each morning, that I’m going to be late…

You can rely on one sense, or mix them, as I have above. The idea is to engage with his concept of the senses provoking an all-of-a-sudden flashback to another time in your life, when you were a different person. You can also mimic Proust’s long, dreamy sentences, his blurring of time, and any other “modernist” traits you’d like to explore.

Please send your response to me via email by Thursday, April 16th. I’d prefer if you just paste it into the body of the email, attachments might get lost or delay your submission.

From syllabus:

Creative responses will offer the opportunity to model the stylistic choices of the authors we study and respond to their works are fellow writers. For this assignment I expect you to respond to the prompt to the best of your abilities and apply creative and critical thinking to developing a short creative piece. 250-500 words.

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Lecture on Proust

Here are some brief notes on Proust for tomorrow’s forum discussion. Enjoy!
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Lecture and Notes on Literary Modernism

Modernism Overview (end of 19th century to mid 2oth century)

• Overthrows traditional modes of representation and expresses nature of modernity (i.e. urbanization, industrial and technological revolution, shifting values, modes of living)
• Instead of plot focuses on moments of lived experience and how to best capture them
• Instead of representative social groups of realism we get a multiplicity of experiences, unfixed personalities, an interplay of shifting relationships, unreliable narrators
• Narration is introspective (focused on internal thought/feeling instead of action), characters are passive, there maybe a metafictional focus on act of writing/art-making
• Writer employs stream of consciousness i.e. thoughts and feelings in a continuous flow
• Reality is not objective; is often in conflict with interior experience of event
• Breaks with fixed “container of novel” i.e. marriage plot, tragedy etc.; is unruly in its length, depth or breadth (e.g. 4,000 page In Search of Lost Time, or Joyce’s attempt to cover 24 hours of Dublin life in Ulysses)
• Plays with language, intertextual references, relies heavily on reader’s knowledge of other art, writing, poetry, and plays with these references (changes their meaning, ironizes)

What writers had to say about modernism

“Pilgrims” by Bruno Schulz (1922)

Schulz, writer of short story, “August”:

“Reality is as thin as paper, and betrays with all its cracks its imitative character.”

Link to article to learn more on Schulz

Manuscript pages of In Search of Lost Time


 “. . . The literature that is satisfied merely to ‘describe things,’ to furnish a miserable listing of their lines and surfaces, is, notwithstanding its pretensions to realism, the farthest removed from reality, the one that most impoverishes and saddens us, even though it speak of nought but glory and greatness, for it sharply cuts off all communication of our present self with the past, the essence of which the objects preserve, and with the future, in which they stimulate us to enjoy the past again. But there was more than that, I reflected. If reality were merely that by-product of existence, so to speak, approximately identical for everybody—because, when we say ‘bad weather, war, cab-stand, brightly lighted restaurant, garden in bloom,’ everyone knows what we mean—if reality were that, then naturally a sort of cinematographic film of these things would be enough and the ‘style’ or the ‘literature’ that departed from their simple theme would be an artificial hors d’oeuvre” (Vol. 6 of In Search of Lost Time).

Helpful video about modernism:

Critic Frederic Jameson:

“…above all, however, the sheer accumulated weight and habit of the great modern works of art from the cubists and Joyce all the way to Beckett and Warhol—all of these things tend to confirm the idea that there is something quite naive, in a sense quite profoundly unrealistic, and in the full sense of the word ideological, about the notion that reality is out there simply, quite objectively and independent of us, and that knowing it involves the unproblematic process of getting an adequate picture of it into our heads” (“Beyond the Cave,” 7-8).


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Beginning our online curriculum

Dear class,

Thank you for your patience as we transition to online for the rest of the semester. I know this is a stressful, frightening time, and I’m certainly going to take that into account as we complete the semester. Some people have expressed that meeting “live” would be difficult for them and I agree that it seems ambitious to hold a live class with 26 students on a video conferencing platform. So, most of our class will be conducted via our CUNY Academic Commons forum, which makes it even more important that you sign up with your BC email before Thursday: http://cuny.is/group-english-2121-spring-2020

1. Please check the updated schedule for your discussion leader and assignment dates. You will still send discussion leader questions to me the day before. Given the circumstances I would like them by 5 pm the night before COPY/PASTED directly into the body of the email (so it doesn’t disappear into BC spam). I need to be able to post them before morning.

2. This is how “class” will go: You will log on to our forum and reply to TWO discussion questions that I have received from our discussion leaders and then posted online. You will log back on over the next 24 hours and post TWO replies to other students’ comments. Your class work must be complete by 10:45am the day after our class meeting time. Late replies will not be accepted. When we begin a new topic (modernism, postmodernism, I will post notes and video lectures that you can comment on and ask me questions about).

3. Our midterm will be conducted thus: I will send out the midterm via email on Tuesday, March 24th, and just like our classwork, you will have 24 hours to complete it and email it back to me. Consider it an open note, take home test. We will work on the honors system. Please do not discuss the questions with your classmates. As ever, plagiarism will not be tolerated.

4. All of you will receive your papers back by Friday with notes via email. I apologize for the delay, but this week has been a roller-coaster and grading has fallen by the wayside.

5. For those of you interested in continuing our in-class discussions, I will hold informal reading groups via zoom after the midterm. Please write back to express your interest in being included. This will be like a “book club” and is *not* required. However, many of you expressed that you will miss our friendly classroom space and this is my attempt to recreate it for those who are interested and able, especially as we move into our more challenging modernist and postmodern material.

6. Any of you who would like to speak to me on Thursday, I will be online from 9:30-10:45 in a zoom meeting. I’ll send out the link for that Thursday morning. We can talk about Madame Bovary, the midterm, the state of the world etc. If you can’t make it, email me your questions!

Thanks and please take care of yourselves, your families, your friends. I hope to see you all in person when this has passed.


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Discussion Leader 3/10

Summary – We continue learning about the relationship between Emma and Leon. As we know, he’s infatuated with her, but he couldn’t wait any longer for her. Eventually, he leaves Emma to live his dreams in Paris. Emma soon becomes depressed and sick because of Leon’s absences and dwells on the thought of preventing him from leaving. Charles writes to his mother to for advice to help Emma get better and stop her illness. When things seem to calm down, we meet Rodolphe. Rodolphe already has ideas of trying to seduce Emma because he is tired of his mistress (she’s getting to ‘worn’ out for him). He tries to admit his “love” to her at the agriculture show but, is constantly interrupted by their ongoing reality. Through the next couple of chapters, we continue to learn about the twist and turns of Emma’s and Rodolphe’s relationship (she eventually sleeps with him). Emma wastes a lot of money to keep up her appearance for Rodolphe however, she ends up owing a lot of money and leads her to steal from Charles. If that wasn’t bad enough, Rodolphe changes his mind about running away with Emma and leaves town on his own. He leaves a letter explaining his departure and once again Emma becomes ill and depressed.

Quote 1: “a little old woman with timid bearing, who seemed to shrink within her poor clothes. On her feet she wore heavy wooden clogs, and from her hips hung a large blue apron. Her pale face framed in a borderless cap was more wrinkled than a withered russet apple. And from the sleeves of her red jacket looked out two large hands with knotty joints, the dust of barns, the potash of washing the grease of wools had so encrusted, roughened, hardened these that they seemed dirty, although they had been rinsed in clear water; and by dint of long service they remained half open, as if to bear humble witness for themselves of so much suffering endured. Something of monastic rigidity dignified her face. Nothing of sadness or of emotion weakened that pale look. In her constant living with animals she had caught their dumbness and their calm. It was the first time that she found herself in the midst of so large a company, and inwardly scared by the flags, the drums, the gentlemen in frock-coats, and the order of the councillor, she stood motionless, not knowing whether to advance or run away, nor why the crowd was pushing her and the jury were smiling at her” (Flaubert, Chapter 8).

“He was dreaming of what she had said, of the line of her lips; her face, as in a magic mirror, shone on the plates of the shakos, the folds of her gown fell along the walls, and days of love unrolled to all infinity before him in the vistas of the future” (Flaubert, Chapter 8).

Question: Realism literary counterpart, naturalism (influenced by Darwin’s theories) illustrates categorization through social types; that certain men and women (usually middle class) do not question their social status or material wealth. During the agriculture show, how is realism’s counterpart to naturalism demonstrated in Catherine’s presentation and representation in comparison to Emma?

Quote 2: “How long since she had been with him, sitting on the footstool in the chimney-corner, where she used to burn the end of a bit of wood in the great flame of the sea-sedges! She remembered the summer evenings all full of sunshine. The colts neighed when anyone passed by, and galloped, galloped. Under her window there was a beehive, and sometimes the bees wheeling round in the light struck against her window like rebounding balls of gold. What happiness there had been at that time, what freedom, what hope! What an abundance of illusions! Nothing was left of them now. She had got rid of them all in her soul’s life, in all her successive conditions of life, maidenhood, her marriage, and her love—thus constantly losing them all her life through, like a traveller who leaves something of his wealth at every inn along his road” ( Flaubert, chapter 10).

“But what then, made her so unhappy? What was the extraordinary catastrophe that had transformed her? And she raised her head, looking round as if to seek the cause of that which made her suffer” (Flaubert, chapter 10)
Question: Emma is constantly reminiscing about her youth; however, she doesn’t come to terms with her reality. Do you believe she’s being selfish for wanting a romantic lifestyle or do you think she has a right to dream of what she’s always desired?

Quote 3: “They had often walked there to the murmur of the waves over the moss-covered pebbles. How bright the sun had been! What happy afternoons they had seen alone in the shade at the end of the garden! He read aloud, bareheaded, sitting on a footstool of dry sticks; the fresh wind of the meadow set trembling the leaves of the book and the nasturtiums of the arbour. Ah! he was gone, the only charm of her life, the only possible hope of joy. Why had she not seized this happiness when it came to her? Why not have kept hold of it with both hands, with both knees, when it was about to flee from her? And she cursed herself for not having loved Leon. She thirsted for his lips. The wish took possession of her to run after and rejoin him, throw herself into his arms and say to him, “It is I; I am yours.” But Emma recoiled beforehand at the difficulties of the enterprise, and her desires, increased by regret, became only the more acute.”

Question: What differences and similarities can we see between the Romantics and the Realists visions of love? What does this say about Emma ? How does this quote foreshadow the rest of the novel ?

Quote 4: “He again saw Emma in her room, dressed as he had seen her, and he undressed her. “Oh, I will have her,” he cried, striking a blow with his stick at a clod in front of him. And he at once began to consider the political part of the enterprise. He asked himself— “Where shall we meet? By what means? We shall always be having the brat on our hands, and the servant, the neighbours, and husband, all sorts of worries. Pshaw! one would lose too much time over it.” Then he resumed, “She really has eyes that pierce one’s heart like a gimlet. And that pale complexion! I adore pale women!”

Question: What does this say about Rodolphe’s vision of Emma? In a more larger scale, what does this say about women’s condition in Madame Bovary ?

Quote 5: “At first she felt stunned; she saw the trees, the paths, the ditches, Rodolphe, and she again felt the pressure of his arm, while the leaves rustled and the reeds whistled. But when she saw herself in the glass she wondered at her face. Never had her eyes been so large, so black, of so profound a depth. Something subtle about her being transfigured her. She repeated, “I have a lover! a lover!” delighting at the idea as if a second puberty had come to her. So at last she was to know those joys of love, that fever of happiness of which she had despaired! She was entering upon marvels where all would be passion, ecstasy, delirium. An azure infinity encompassed her, the heights of sentiment sparkled under her thought, and ordinary existence appeared only afar off, down below in the shade, through the interspaces of these heights.”

Question: What do you think of that scene ? What does this say about marriage, love, or the vision of sex in this novel?

Argument 1 – Realism demonstrates how a persons’ lifestyle should be done by things that are necessary rather then being ruled by emotions. However, Emma’s emotions take over her decisions that lead to this insanity that is very dangerous and dark. Rodolphe takes advantage of Emma’s insanity and uses it to make her fall in love with him and eventually sleep with him. Emma can’t understand his betrayal because she can’t perceive the truth of the reality. She becomes ill again and cannot even process her own train of thought because she is reminded of his decision to leave without her. In comparison to the romantic novels we have read, Werther and Victor both faced situations that led to the extreme of murders and death while, Emma is only dealing with the absence of Rodolphe in her life. I believe that realism not only illustrates the reality but at the same time, highlights one’s insanity. Eventually one’s insanity leads to the failure of trying to understand the actuality of what is and what was.

Argument 2 – In Madame Bovary, there is an underlining importance of women’s condition, along with the theme of love, marriage and sex. Flaubert seems to be depicting women as passionate, reckless and adulterers. The character of Emma is easily manipulated by Rodolphe who only seems to be interested inn her body, and she is ruining her life to pursue passion. Sex seems more important than love, love is thus dissociated from sex as she has sex with Charles only through marital duty, and marriage and love is dissociated since marriage seems to only be a social covenant. Women are objectified, sexualized, this is seen especially though the character of Emma, and the passion she shares for 3 different men.

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Introduction to Realism

Discussion questions on “The Death of Ivan Ilych” by Leo Tolstoy

1. Please compare the suffering to Ivan Ilych to that of our Romantics—how does his attitude towards life and death differ? Are there similarities?
2. How would you characterize the attitude of the writer Tolstoy towards his character Ivan Ilych?
3. Can you identify stylistic strains that mark a schism from the ideals of Romanticism?

Notes on Realism (mid to late 19th c.)

Realism is a reaction to the abstracted, emotionally overwrought style of the romantics, it is an attempt to reclaim objectivity in art, to portray the world “as it is” not as it is shaded by the morose worldview of a “creative genius.” As Flaubert says:

I expressed myself badly when I said ‘one must not write with the heart.’ I meant to say: one ought not let his personality intrude. I believe that Great Art is scientific and impersonal.

The author uses a minimal, straightforward style to portray the world as it reflects the social realities of the 19th century, a time of great political and economic change and upheaval. Flaubert thinks of his work as impersonal and “scientific.” Realism seeks to portray the world objectively, to reveal the “truth”:

. . . That’s what is so fine about the natural sciences: they don’t wish to prove anything. Therefore what breadth of fact and what an immensity for thought! We must treat men like mastodons and crocodiles. Does anyone fly into a passion about the horns of the former or the jaws of the latter ? Show them, stuff them, put them in solution, that’s enough, but appreciate them, no. And what are you yourselves, you little toads? (in, 154, To Louise Colet,
March 31, 1853)

Realism, or its literary counterpart, naturalism (influenced by Darwin’s theories), seek to categorize and analyze social types: especially the bourgeois (middle class) man and woman who do not question their social status or material wealth.

Realism views subjectivity and sentimentality, especially in the form of romantic love, with great irony. This is a rejection of the romantic view of the world, which eschews figurative and florid language and does not idealize or poeticize nature or love: a good example of this is a love scene at Madame Bovary that occurs over the hustle and bustle of an agricultural fair, and the calling out of prizes for the best manure.

Broadly defined as “the representation of reality,” realism in the arts is the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, as well as implausible, exotic and supernatural elements. Literary realism attempts to represent familiar things as they are. Realist authors chose to depict everyday and banal activities and experiences, instead of using a romanticized or similarly stylized presentation.

Flaubert believed Bovary to be a novel about nothing, a stylistic exercise in which the subject matter does not matter, only the correct execution of style, no philosophizing or attempt to insert oneself into the work: life seen with a clear, cool eye.

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Discussion Leader 2/27

Question: Do you believe the story (without the letters) would implement the same feeling it initially has on readers who enthrall their being in the crucial letters that allow the story to flow in genuinely understanding Shelley’s pure intent? As both Frankenstein and Sorrow of Werther share similar literary devices, themes, motifs, epistolary styles (especially intimate and unique explanations) and emphasis on sublime nature and gothicism, is it possible for the story of Frankenstein to provoke the reader as it would without the letters?

Question: Over the course of the novel, the reader is taken on an emotional roller coaster through the various characters (predominantly Victor Frankenstein) romantic, spontaneous and perplexing actions/thoughts. How does Victor Frankenstein go from generally being a sympathetic character to becoming the antithesis of a good-natured human?

Question: From indulging in various novels relating in their entirety to the concept of Romanticism, it is noticed that biblical references and cultural mythology are often cited throughout the story. What is the sole purpose for the subliminal and or/ blatant remarks? Is it significant in truly identifying the being of the character?

Quote: “All my speculations and hopes are as nothing, and like the archangel who aspired to omnipotence, I am chained in an eternal hell” (Shelley chapter 24).

Quote: “Yet why do I say this? I have myself been blasted in these hopes, yet another may succeed.”His voice became fainter as he spoke, and at length, exhausted by his effort, he sank into silence. About half an hour afterwards he attempted again to speak but was unable; he pressed my hand feebly, and his eyes closed for ever, while the irradiation of a gentle smile passed away from his lips” (Shelley September 12th).

This is extremely significant as these are Frankenstein’s last words in the story. Through his deep and eccentric conversations with Walton, he voices his concerns pertaining to “pure” intention. However, like the indecisive and complex man he is, he regrets what he previously stated. Frankenstein didn’t learn anything nor did he change. I truly feel he is to blame for all the melancholy and disgruntled sentiments of the story. Walton finds the tale alluring and believes that Frankenstein was a nobleman before the chaos ensued. Frankenstein has always been keen on the idea that he was bound for absolute eminence, and he had stuck with that belief until he physically couldn’t. I believe this to be one of the main causes of his unfortunate downfall.


I find mental health to be a large theme throughout this novel, it’s especially more prominent in these closing chapters of the novel. We see the slow trickle then quick deterioration of Victor’s mentality. We see his emotional and mental health affect him in physical ways such as causing him to have a fever, illness, paranoia, anxiety, nightmares, excess aggression and so forth. He is a grown man who doesn’t know how to properly handle his emotions and falls into near hysteria. He declares vengeance on the creature for killing his wife and puts himself in deadly circumstances to attempt to obtain it. It is a common human understanding of how such situations can take a toll on mental health and comprehension and rationality. What I can’t seem to come to terms with is this double standard for the creature. He has endured toil, torment, abandonment, deprived of joy and affection his entire life. He was created and left to fend for himself. He has the body of deceased male body parts but he is essentially a child. With a child’s mentality. How is this not taken into consideration? Through his eloquence and sophisticated knowledge, he is perceived to be a man in level with victor but he isn’t. He’s a child, he’s Victor’s child. If you don’t teach a child right from wrong you can crucify them for doing something you disapprove of.

“Slave, I before reasoned with you, but you have proved yourself unworthy of my condescension. Remember that I have power; you believe yourself miserable, but I can make you so wretched that the light of day will be hateful to you. You are my creator, but I am your master; obey!” (Chapter 20)
“But when I discovered that he, the author at once of my existence and of its unspeakable torments, dared to hope for happiness, that while he accumulated wretchedness and despair upon me he sought his own enjoyment in feelings and passions from the indulgence of which I was forever barred, then impotent envy and bitter indignation filled me with an insatiable thirst for vengeance. I recollected my threat and resolved that it should be accomplished. I knew that I was preparing for myself a deadly torture, but I was the slave, not the master, of an impulse which I detested yet could not disobey.” (Chapter 24)

We have this slave/master, slave/creator relationship come up many times within the text. The theme of an unbalanced distribution of power is common within tales of relationships that deal with the boss/employee, teacher/student and especially in this case father/son relationship. There is this fight for the upper hand, the ambition as the student to outwit the teacher. This craving for power derives from the understanding of not having the upper hand, of knowing what it feels like to be powerless. What can we say about this relationship in regards to the creature and Victor? The creature and himself? The creature and society?

“You, who call Frankenstein your friend, seem to have a knowledge of my crimes and his misfortunes. But in the detail which he gave you of them he could not sum up the hours and months of misery which I endured wasting in impotent passions. For while I destroyed his hopes, I did not satisfy my own desires. They were for ever ardent and craving; still I desired love and fellowship, and I was still spurned. Was there no injustice in this? Am I to be thought of as the only criminal, when all humankind sinned against me? Why do you not hate Felix, who drove his friend from his door with contumely? Why do you not execrate the rustic who sought to destroy the saviour of his child? Nay, these are virtuous and immaculate beings! I, the miserable and the abandoned, am an abortion, to be spurned at, and kicked, and trampled on. Even now my blood boils at the recollection of this injustice.” (Chapter 24)

We see that the creature has come to an understanding that although what he has done is wrong, he is not the only one who is in the wrong. He speaks about the double standard that is of Jim and Victor. It is not a question of fairness because it is clearly unjustified (unless there is a debate on that statement). Would it be so bad for the creature to assimilate into society? Why couldn’t this opportunity be offered to him rather than disgust and isolation? Is it the creature that needs to change or is it society? He claims that “all mankind sinned against me”, is he wrong? He calls himself an abortion, what does this say about society?

“I was at first touched by the expressions of his misery; yet, when I called to mind what Frankenstein had said of his powers of eloquence and persuasion, and when I again cast my eyes on the lifeless form of my friend, indignation was rekindled within me. “Wretch!” I said, “It is well that you come here to whine over the desolation that you have made. You throw a torch into a pile of buildings, and when they are consumed, you sit among the ruins and lament the fall. Hypocritical fiend! If he whom you mourn still lived, still would he be the object, again would he become the prey, of your accursed vengeance. It is not pity that you feel; you lament only because the victim of your malignity is withdrawn from your power.” (Chapter 24)

I find this statement by Walton to the creature on behalf of Frankenstein to be ironic due to the duplex meaning to the words. Walton chastises the creature for doing what Frankenstein has already done. Victor is responsible for bringing this creature into the world, abandoning it, causing hate and vengeance into its heart and then playing as a victim of circumstance. Do you agree with this observation? Is there a double standard here due to the creatures’ lack of `humanity”? I put humanity into quotations because we see that the creature nearly encompasses all the elements of humanity other than the way he was conceived into the world. Is this double standard justified? Keep in mind the parallel deaths of each of their lovers. The “eye for an eye” dilemma.

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